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The Scientific Revolution, Grade 8

Scientific Revolution Project Planning Model
Unit topic: Scientific Revolution                                                                                                  
Grade level: 8
Duration of unit: 4 weeks                                                                                     
Designer: Martha Zambrano

Entry Activity:
1.    The teacher will place 11 different objects in a table in front of the classroom. 
2.    A list of 11 scientists will be displayed on the board.
3.    Each of the objects will be connected to something that was discovered during the Scientific Revolution. (Examples: barometer, allergy season map, etc.)
4.    Students need to research and connect what scientist was responsible for what discovery using the Internet or any other resources in the classroom. (21) (BBS)
5.    Classroom discussion on how they were able to connect the products to scientists from a long time ago.

Problem or Project :

After a brief introduction to the Scientific Revolution, students will be responsible of choosing a famous scientist from this era based on their area of interest. They can choose from: Nicolas Copernicus, Galileo Galilei, Isaac Newton, Johannes Kepler, Tycho Brahe, Robert Boyle, Andreas Vesalius, Margaret Cavendish, Maria Winkelman, Francis Bacon and Rene Descartes.
Students will answer: How have scientific discoveries and advancements shaped the world? What technology would not exist in the world today if it weren’t for your scientific pioneer? Students will create a museum exhibition where they explain the scientist’s history, importance and current impact on today’s world.

Standards: 
SO8.4.1 Understands the impact of scientific and technological developments on individuals and societies.
SO8.4.1.1 Explains the significance of the achievements of individual scientists and inventors from many cultures.
SO8.4.1.2 Identifies and explains the consequences of scientific and technological changes.
SO8.4.1.3 Understands contributions of the Scientific Revolution to European society.
Student Friendly Standards:
How did scientific advancements and technology affect different societies?
Why were the achievements of scientists and inventors important?
What were some effects of scientific and technological changes?
How did the Scientific Revolution contribute to European society?
Essential Questions:
1.    What is a paradigm shift?
2.    How have paradigm shifts changed and how do they continue to change our understanding of the world?
3.    How did discoveries of the 16th century affect society today?
4.    Why was the Scientific Revolution important for the progress of Western Civilization?
5.    How did science and technology affect different societies?
6.    Who were the major contributors in the Scientific Revolution?    

Student “I Can” Statements:
Know (knowledge)
I know how science and technology impacted society.
I know how individual scientists researched and came up with conclusions. 
I know how the Scientific Revolution impacted European Society.
I know how the Catholic Church was an obstacle for progress during the Scientific Revolution.
Understand (concepts)
I understand the impact and technological developments on individuals and societies.
I understand the consequences of scientific and technological changes over time.
I understand the contributions of the Scientific Revolution to European society.
Do (skills)
I can explain the importance of the achievements of individual scientists and inventors from many cultures. 
I can explain the consequences of scientific and technological changes on society.
I can analyze the importance of achievements and discoveries made during the Scientific Revolution on today’s world.
I can create an artifact representing an important discovery.
I can analyze current events and synthesize important information.
I can work successfully with my team.
I can present information effectively in front of my classmates.

Assessment Evidence
Project or Problem to Be Solved: 

After a brief introduction to the Scientific Revolution, students will be responsible of choosing a famous scientist from this era based on their area of interest. They can choose from: Nicolas Copernicus, Galileo Galilei, Isaac Newton, Johannes Kepler, Tycho Brahe, Robert Boyle, Andreas Vesalius, Margaret Cavendish, Maria Winkelman, Francis Bacon and Rene Descartes.
Students will answer: How have scientific discoveries and advancements shaped the world? What technology would not exist in the world today if it weren’t for your scientific pioneer? Students will create a museum exhibition where they explain the scientist’s history, importance and current impact on today’s world.
Pre-assessment: 
•    Students will answer a worksheet on the Scientific Revolution. (See attached documents)
    Formative Assessments: 
•    Exit Pass
•    Paradigm Shift Project
•    Heliocentric vs. Geocentric Venn Diagram
•    Classroom presentations
•    Class discussion
•    Inductive and deductive reasoning standing up activity
•    Newton comparison paragraph
•    Four corners activity (experiment similarity)
•    Jigsaw activity
•    Socratic Circle
•    Practice Presentation Feedback    Summative Assessments: 
•    Museum exhibition project (see attached documents)
•    Museum exhibition presentation
Materials needed:
Student materials:
•    Laptop
•    Trifold
•    Markers

Teacher materials:
•    Laptop
•    Scientific Revolution Presentation
•    Objects for entry activity: barometer, allergy map, etc.    

•    Colors, glitter
•    Scissors
•    Glue
•    Projector
•    Speakers
•    Markers
•    Stopwatch    

•    Materials for 3D model (foam spheres, wood sticks, silicon, paint, etc.)
•    Colored paper
•    Glue stick, tape, etc.
•    White and colored paper
Resources:
(Click on the documents to access them)
1.    Pre assessment
2.    Optical illusions websites: 
http://kids.niehs.nih.gov/games/illusions/
http://www.optics4kids.org/home/content/illusions/
http://www.sciencekids.co.nz/pictures/illusions.html 

3.    Paradigm Shift project
4.    Venn Diagram Heliocentric vs. Geocentric
5.    Inductive vs. Deductive Reasoning Practice Quiz:
http://www.thatquiz.org/tq/previewtest?Y/Z/L/T/14841329498191
6.    Newton video:
goo.gl/gsQ6DJ  
7.    Women in Science Articles
Article 1
Article 2
Article 3
Article 4
8.    Practice Presentation Rubric
9.    Summative Project
Sequence of Instruction
Indicate application of Differentiation (DIFF), Rigor and Relevance (R&R), Best Practices (BP), Brain-Based Strategies (BBS), and 21st Century Skills (21)

Activities and Assignments: 
Lesson 1: Introduction and entry Activity
1.    Entry activity: 11 objects and 11 scientists.
2.    Pre assessment: Students will answer a worksheet on the Scientific Revolution. (See attached documents)

Lesson 2: Scientific Revolution Introduction
a)    In groups of 3 find different definitions of what a revolution is. (21)
b)    As a group, create your own definition of “revolution” to present to the whole class. (BP) 
c)    Find 2 examples where you have seen revolutions occur, past or present. (BBS)
d)    As a class, discuss what a revolution is and what are its main characteristics.
e)    Introduce how the Scientific Revolution began with a short presentation for those students that need reinforcement (DIFF)

Lesson 3: What is a paradigm? What is a paradigm shift?
a)    Teacher will create groups (2 or 3 students) for the project based on interest. Students will answer a Google Form. (DIFF) (BBS)
b)    Present what a paradigm is. Ask them what do they think a paradigm shift is.
c)    Students will visit the webpages and find different optical illusions: (BBS)
http://kids.niehs.nih.gov/games/illusions/
http://www.optics4kids.org/home/content/illusions/
http://www.sciencekids.co.nz/pictures/illusions.html 

d)    Students will answer the following: 
i.    Describe the illusions you saw. How did you feel when you saw one image and then it changed?
ii.    What was your reaction when you noticed a paradigm shift? 
iii.    What thoughts or feelings did you have?
iv.    How are optical illusions similar to paradigm shifts?
e)    Student exit pass (BP)
i.    Students will write on an index card their own definition of paradigm shift and they will give an example.
Lesson 4: How can we see paradigm shifts today?
a)    Students will be introduced to the project about current paradigm shifts related to the scientist they chose. Students should research how the paradigm shifts led to three technological advancements we can see in today’s world. (See attached document) (R&R) (21)
b)    Students will include 3 ways their scientists helped shape today’s world. (21)
c)    At the end of class, students will present their findings to practice their presentation skills. (21) (BBS)

Lesson 5: The life of…
a)    Students will investigate the life of the scientist they chose. (BP) They should include the following:
i.    Early life
ii.    Family
iii.    Education
iv.    What was their major discovery?
v.    How did they make their most famous discovery?
vi.    Controversy with the Church
vii.    Death
b)    Students start brainstorming ideas for their exhibit name (21)
c)    Students work on their exhibit sign and on their storybook. They can decide to do an electronic version or a printed version. (DIFF)

Lesson 6: Heliocentric vs. Geocentric Theory
a)    In pairs, students will investigate about the similarities and differences on the heliocentric and geocentric models of the universe using the Internet. Students will write their information on the Venn diagram. (See attached document) (BP)
b)    For those students that understand what heliocentric and geocentric means, they can start working on their own 3D model of their scientist’s most important discovery. (DIFF)
c)    Teacher will work with those students that need extra help with heliocentric and geocentric theories. (DIFF)

Lesson 7: Science vs. Church
a)    Introductory activity: Teacher will tell students that today’s research can only be done with the use of the library section on Science. They cannot work on their computers (this will be simulating the Church’s impact on scientists during the Scientific Revolution) (BBS)
b)    Students will work on investigating at least 3 of the most important contributions that their scientist did and create either visual representations or an artifact that represent this. 
c)    As a closure, students will write in their blog and discuss in class: (21)
i.    How did you feel when the teacher said you couldn’t use your computer?
ii.    How do you think your scientist felt when the Church limited their research?
d)    Students continue to work on their 3D model if needed (DIFF)

Lesson 8: Class presentations
a)    Students will prepare a presentation about their scientist defending their discovery against the church’s ideals.
b)    Students will get together with their group and start writing down their ideas with their team. (BP)
c)    Students have to use the following words to defend their viewpoint. 
i.    Paradigm
ii.    Paradigm Shift
iii.    Universe
iv.    Earth
v.    Observations
vi.    Experiments
vii.    Catholic Church
viii.    Discover
d)    Students will give 3-minute presentations on how the discoveries changed the world we live in. They should debate why the Church should or shouldn’t try to silence them. (21) (R&R)
e)    Students will fill out presentation feedback forms as a formative assessment for group members (BP)

Lesson 9: Inductive vs. Deductive Reasoning
a)    Teacher lesson on inductive and deductive reasoning
b)    Read the inductive/deductive statements to the class. Students will stand up when they believe the statement is inductive and should stay sitting down if it is deductive. (BP) (DIFF)
i.    Mikhail hails from Russia and Russians are tall, therefore Mikhail is tall. 
ii.    When chimpanzees are exposed to rage, they tend to become violent. Humans are similar to chimpanzees, and therefore they tend to get violent when exposed to rage.
iii.    The woman in the neighboring apartment has a shrill voice. I can hear a shrill voice from outside, therefore the woman in the neighboring apartment is shouting. 
iv.    All men are mortal. Socrates is a man, and therefore he is mortal. 
v.    All the tigers observed in a particular region have yellow black stripes; therefore all the tigers native to this region have yellow stripes.
vi.    All oranges are fruits. All fruits grow on trees. Therefore, all oranges grow on trees
vii.    All bachelors are single. Johnny is single. Hence, Johnny is a bachelor
c)    Students will start working on the visual representations or artifacts they will present in the final museum exhibit if they understand the concepts taught in class. 
d)    Students that need extra practice can take a formative quiz on (DIFF): http://www.thatquiz.org/tq/previewtest?Y/Z/L/T/14841329498191 

Lesson 10: Newton
a)    Video on the 3 laws of motion: goo.gl/gsQ6DJ  
b)    Perform the Newtown egg drop experiment in class (BBS)
c)    As a formative assessment, students will write a short paragraph explaining why Newton is similar or different to the scientist they are studying. (21) (BBS)
d)     Students will continue to work on their 3D model or their visual representations if needed.

Lesson 11: Bacon and Boyle
a)    Ask the class: What is the scientific method? They can draw or explain it. (DIFF)
b)    Pressure experiment. Using the Boyle’s artifact put a marshmallow inside it and exert pressure on it. (BBS)
c)    Ask the students to create a diagram explaining the experiment. 
d)    Answer the following questions on your blog: (21)
i.    What do you see?
ii.    What is happening to the marshmallow as the pressure increases?
iii.    What is happening to the marshmallow as the pressure decreases?
e)    Formative assessment: Four corners activity. Teacher will read out loud different experiments and ask them if they agree that the process the experiment follows the scientific method. Students will decide between: Strongly agree, Agree, Disagree, Strongly disagree. Teacher will choose a student to explain their decision after each example. (BP)

Lesson 12: Current events
a)    Individually, create thorough write-ups for 2 major technological advancements – Find 2 news stories that have gained international attention about a technology that could only be possible thanks to your scientist. (21) For each article you will answer the following questions completely and thoughtfully: 
i.    What was the article about?
ii.    How does this new technology work?
iii.    How did your scientist contribute to the development of this technology?
iv.    How does this technology help today’s world? (Health? Environment? Education? Etc.)
b)    Students will begin to brainstorm in their groups about the interactive activity they will come up with to incorporate in their final presentation. 

Lesson 13: Women in science
a)    Teacher Presentation on Cavendish and Winkleman
b)    Jigsaw activity on Women in Science today. Students will be divided into 4 groups and they will read the different articles. (See attached document) In your groups: (DIFF)
i.    What is the name of the article that you read? Who wrote it?
ii.     Summarize the article. What is the overall point? 
iii.     What are 3 facts from the article that support the overall point that you mentioned.
iv.     What paradigm does the article explore?
v.     Do you agree or disagree with what the article is saying? Why?
vi.     What surprised or interested you about this article
c)    Discuss as a class in a Socratic Circle: (21)
i.    Do you agree or disagree with what the article is saying? Why?
ii.    Overall why do you think that men and women are not represented equally in the field of Science today?
iii.     Do you believe it is a problem that men and women are not represented equally in the field of Science today? Why or why not?
iv.     What should we do with this information? What sort of steps should be taken?
Lesson 14: Quotes and Sayings
a)    Read aloud the following quote “If I have seen further it is only by standing on shoulders of giants” - Newton. Discuss as a class: 
i.    What does the quote mean?
ii.    What are some examples of people making discoveries based on other scientists?
iii.    Real meaning of the quote: Letters to Robert Hooke
b)    In their groups, students research about the most famous quotes their scientists said or wrote. As a group discuss why they are important. (21)
c)    Students can choose what to work on in their groups for their final exhibit (interactive activity, visual representation, artifact, etc.) (DIFF)

Lesson 15: Presentation feedback
a)    Group conferences with teacher to receive teacher feedback before the final presentation. (BP)
b)    Have a practice gallery walk in class to give other students feedback on their presentation and final exhibit while the teacher is working individually with each group. (BP)
c)    Students that haven’t finished an assignment can have this time to work on it. (DIFF)
d)    If students already finished everything, they have the time to add something creative to their presentation (ex. Interesting facts, “did you know…”, diagrams, etc.) (DIFF)
Lesson 16: Final Presentation Gallery Walk.
a)    Students will display their final project: trifold and artifacts.
b)    While 2 students stay in each booth presenting their scientist, the other members of the team will be walking around the classroom looking at their classmate’s displays and asking questions and taking notes (using note takers) (21)
c)    Administrators, department heads, teachers, other students and parents will be invited to view the gallery walk. 

Presentation:

Final Presentation Gallery Walk. While 2 students stay in each booth presenting their scientist, the other members of the team will be walking around the classroom looking at their classmate’s displays and asking questions and taking notes (using note takers) Administrators, department heads, teacher, students and parents will be invited to view the gallery walk. Class time will be divided into three blocks where two students need to stay in their exhibit and one of them will be going around taking notes. They will be rotating note-taking time with presentation time so they can all visit all of the exhibits. 

Scientific Revolution Final Project

Objective: Acquire important background knowledge about the different scientists from the Scientific Revolution in order to know how their contributions shaped today’s world.
Assignment: Students will create a museum exhibition that will help people understand how science and technology affected today’s world.
Museum exhibition should include:
1.    Creative exhibit name (Build a sign to place in your final presentation)
2.    History of your scientist
a)    Storybook (storyjumper.com), video or your own idea
3.    An a 3D model of one of their most important discoveries
4.    Visual representations or artifacts of their main discoveries (at least 3, not counting the 3D design)
a)    Explanation of what each artifact is
b)    Explanation of why each artifact was important in the 16th century
c)    Explanation how we use each artifact today (if we still use it, if we don’t then what replaced it)
5.    Trifold that includes: 
a)    Picture of your scientist with their name
b)    Five of the most important phrases or sayings from that scientist
i.    Include how each phrase can be applied to today’s world and why they were important before
c)    Two technological advancements that wouldn’t exist today if it weren’t for this person.
i.    Information will be obtained from the articles read in class. 
ii.    Choose either a newspaper article, a newscast (or another suggestion) and explain the importance of each item
iii.    Explain how paradigms shifted with your scientist’s discovery
d)    Three reasons why the scientists studied influenced today’s world in a positive way. (Think of environmental changes, medicine, health, etc.) 
6.    Interactive activity with the audience
a)    You will be responsible for coming up with an interactive activity that you can incorporate the audience that visits your exhibit.
 
RUBRICS
Content Rubric:

Criteria     4    3    2    1    0
Content (4) Content is accurate. Covers topics in depth with details and examples.  (3)  Content reflects learning only from class. All facts are accurate. Covers topics in with details and examples.  (2)  Content reflects learning some from class. Some facts are inaccurate. Covers topics in with some details and examples. (1)   Content doesn’t reflect learning from class. Facts are inaccurate. Covers topics in partially. (0)   Insufficient information to mark.
Creativity (.4)    Overall project is extremely neat, creative, and well organized. Contains extra elements that make it look extremely attractive.  (3)  Overall project is neat, creative, and well organized. (2)    Overall project is neat but lacks creativity and is roughly organized. (1)  Overall project is done carelessly and lacks creativity and organization.  (0)  Insufficient information to mark.
Sources (.1)    All sources (information and graphics) are accurately documented correctly in MLA format.    All sources (information and graphics) are documented MLA format, but format is used incorrectly.    All sources (information and graphics) are accurately documented, but a few are not in MLA format.    Some sources are not accurately documented or not using MLA format.    Insufficient information to mark.

Dispositions Rubric: (Un graded)

Criteria    4    3    2    1    0
Completion    Consistently meets expectations of task on time (meets deadline), adhering to the conventions set forth (i.e. neat, legible, attention to detail, format, etc.).    Frequently meets expectations of task on time (meets deadline), adhering to the conventions set forth (i.e. neat, legible, attention to detail, format, etc.)    Occasionally meets expectations of task on time (meets deadline), adhering to the conventions set forth (i.e. neat, legible, attention to detail, format, etc.).    Rarely meets expectations of task on time (meets deadline), adhering to the conventions set forth (i.e. neat, legible, attention to detail, format, etc.).    Insufficient information to mark.
Preparedness    Consistently brings needed materials to class.  Prepared for work / assignments in advance without prompting.    Frequently brings needed materials to class and is ready to work.    Occasionally brings needed materials but sometimes needs to settle down and get to work.    Rarely brings needed materials and/or is rarely ready to get to work.    Insufficient information to mark.
Use of time    Consistently makes most of entire class period, seeks help when necessary, uses class time wisely.    Frequently makes most of entire class period, seeks help when necessary, uses class time wisely.    Occasionally makes most of entire class period, but is easily distracted and not focused on activity.    Rarely uses class time wisely, distracts others, wastes class time.    Insufficient information to mark
Oral Presentation Rubric:
Criteria    4    3    2    1    0
Communication    Clearly and effectively conveys main ideas in own words.    Communicates most of the important information but has minor flaws or gaps.    Communicates some of the important information but has a few major flaws or gaps.    Doesn’t clearly communicate all important information or is not in own words.    Insufficient information to mark.
Eye Contact and Body Language    Presenter uses proper eye contact, gestures and expressions.    Usually has eye contact, adequate use of gestures.    Has some eye contact, uses some gestures.    Lacking eye contact, unaware of audience, expressions missing.    Insufficient information to mark.
Voice    Voice inflection, clear enunciation and proper pronunciation.    Generally varies use of voice, with adequate enunciation.    Occasionally varies use of voice, some parts are not enunciated well.    Monotone, whispering, mumbling.    Insufficient information to mark.
Delivery    Presentation appears well rehearsed and flows well from point to point.    Suitable effort for presentation shown but has an occasional gap, generally smooth flowing.    Suitable effort for presentation shown but has a few gaps, not smooth flowing.    Minimal effort for presentation shown, obvious little or no rehearsal, and does not flow.    Insufficient information to mark.
Visual Aid    Understandable, appropriate, neat, creative, without errors, original, colorful.    Visual aid present but missing one of the items, generally neat and colorful with few errors.    Visual aid present but missing to or three of the items, not very neat or colorful, and some errors.    Visual aid present with more than one item missing. Shows little or no creativity, originality, and use of color.    Insufficient information to mark.
Feedback Response    Responds to questions well, defends ideas and expands on topics.    Questions are answered with some confidence by presenter and can expand on most.    Questions are answered with little confidence by presenter and can't expand on most.    Questions are not answered or answered without confidence and no additional ideas.    Insufficient information to mark.

Presentation Content Rubric:
Criteria    4    3    2    1    0
Information and Accuracy    Topic is well organized and is complete and covered thoroughly and accurate.    Topic is somewhat organized and is covered but not complete. A few details are inaccurate.    Topic is somewhat organized and is covered but not complete.  Several details are inaccurate.    Unorganized, missing vital information and/or some information is inaccurate.    Insufficient information to mark.
Understanding and Facts    Topic is supported with facts from more than one source, clear and easily understood.    Topic somewhat supported by two or three sources.  Occasionally confuses facts or understanding.    Topic somewhat supported but only 1 source.  Several confusing facts or ideas and not connected to the source.    No sources cited.  Topic not supported with facts and/or hard to understand.    Insufficient information to mark.
Activity    Well designed, covers main ideas of topic, good tool for study.    Most ideas present but missing some, good design as a study tool.    Some key ideas present but missing some, reasonable design for the activity.    Not useful for study, missing main ideas, basic design (fill in blank).    Insufficient information to mark.

 

 

 

 

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