Government

Citizenship and Community Participation

Designer: Raúl Alvarado Navarro, Grade 12

Monterrey, Nuevo León, México
Unit topic:  Mexican Government – Citizen and Community participation                       Duration of unit: 3 weeks                                                                                            
PBL Focus
Project or Problem to Be Solved: The lack of community and citizen participation.
•    In Mexico the concept of community and citizen participation is limited to the political-electoral field
•    The citizens do not have influence on the decisions and policies that affect them
•    Apathy and little involvement is common in our country
•    There is currently a citizen awakening and it is important to take advantage

Democracy is in very good perception in the region. But not so with the institutions responsible for sustaining progress in the welfare and development in Mexico. Demonstrations against corruption, lack of representativeness, as well as the universal demands of better education, health and transport, respond to dissatisfaction with the government and citizen’s priorities. To have more and better democracy we need more citizen and community participation.
Young people play a key role in there demonstrations demanding greater progress. All these challenges not only from the complaint, but also from spaces and areas of social contribution in their own communities.
There is currently a very low political representation of young people in the Mexican government, that although young people represent more than a quarter of the population.
From the respect for plurality and diversity of the various youth groups and communities, definitely we need to listen, to open spaces and improve conditions for their effective participation and contribution in society in different dimensions.
To make it clearer, the Citizen participation may be defined as a process in which ordinary people take part with the goal of influencing a decision involving significant choices that will affect their community. Such participation may or may not take place within an institutional framework, and it may be organized either by members of civil society .    


The following diagram is depicted graphically the development of the project that the students should design, plan and implement to solve the problem of lack of citizen and community participation.
•    The diagram shows the different phases of the development of the project.
•    To solve the problem and during the project, we will use the methodology of development education and community-based approach.
The Community-based Approach traditionally has been defined "...as a locality or space, people or members, shared institutions and values, interaction, distribution of power, and a social system ".  The concept of community includes issues of locality, connection, and services as well as a "...social bond characterized by a sense of mutuality, care, connection, and identity, awareness and obligation to others ". Following a community-based approach means include community input in their own development.

Standards (course): 
1.    Understands ideas about civic life, politics, and government
2.    Understands how politics enables a group of people with varying opinions and/or interests to reach collective decisions, influence decisions, and accomplish goals that they could not reach as individuals.
3.    Understands how the purposes served by a government affect relationships between the individual and government and between government and society as a whole.
4.    Understands the physical and human characteristics of place.
5.    Understands and knows how to analyze chronological relationships and patterns.

Student friendly focus:
1.    Evaluate the role of citizens in the political process in Mexico, including civic responsibilities and interaction between citizens and government.
2.    Analyze the process of political socialization and its relationship with citizen participation
3.    Assess the role and function of the common ways used by citizens on community participation.
4.    Analyze the process through which citizens can to influence in public policies. 

Essential Questions:  
-    What needs affect a greater number of people?
-    Without political representatives, how would you take out initiatives to improve the city?
-    What is the importance of community involvement in solving a problem?
-    How can engage the community in solving a problem?

-    What does community-based approach mean?
-    What kind of activities or strategies can we use to promote the participation of community members?
    

Student “I Can” Statements (Know):
•    Understands how politics can enable a group of people with varying opinions and/or interests to reach a collective decision they may not reach as individuals.
•    Understands how politics can enable a group of people with varying opinions and/or interests to influence decisions they may not influence as individuals.
•    Understands how politics can enable a group of people with varying opinions and/or interests to accomplish goals they may not accomplish as individuals.
•    Knows that politics can enable a group of people to manage the distribution of resources and to resolve conflicts.
•    Knows that politics can enable a group of people to allocate benefits and burdens.
•    Knows that human intentions must be carried out in order to have consequences.
•    Knows that the consequences of an act are related to the way in which the act is carried out.

Understand
•    Citizen participation
•    Community-based Approach
•    Community Development
•    Social Education
•    Public politics
•    Social initiative
•    Social responsibility
•    Alleviation of poverty
•    Development Education
Assessment Evidence
Pre-assessment:
(Activity 1)
Video interpretation
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pFs5vWxW-vc
 
Step 1
In the first step the student must explain the dimension of the problem, a brief overview of his origin and his causes.    

Formative Assessments:
(Activities 2 y 3)
Student conference (One on one conversation with students to check their level of understanding.)
At this stage the student must explain the problem it seeks to solve through the project, initiative or activities.

It should include:

a)    What is the problem?
b)    Why is there?
c)    How big is it? (How many people are affected, how they are affected, where)
d)    What are the consequences?    Summative Assessment:
(Activities 4, 5, 6, 7 y 8)
In this section, students will focus on a target group in response to social problem that have been detected.

They must explain the following:

a)    In what part of the problem are to focus
b)    What initiative or strategy offered as a solution
c)    What activities will perform
d)    What is the advantage over other solutions
e)    Why the initiative or strategy is innovative
Sequence of Instruction
Entry Activity - Introduction: 
“Dream my city”
−    To start the activity could make a general text reading, "Sleep my city" between the whole group or reading the text individually.
−    Read aloud the questions to solve doubts and then do a tab of questions individually.
−    Finish with a discussion with the whole group, expressed around the answers.

Activities and Assignments: 
Unit 1: I and my environment

Activity 1. Introduction
Activity 2. Dream my city
Activity 3. My needs, common needs?  
Activity 4. In the search for solutions
Activity 5. Reporting under headlines
Activity 6. Community-based Approach
Activity 7. Real Community
Activity 8. Closure and Evaluation
Summative Assessment:
Objective: Reflect on issues affecting the vision of what is and could be our community.
Activities: The purpose of the activities is to find the midpoint between desires and weaknesses in one or more groups, direct the action of a vision between utopia and reality, promote participation and ensure the development of the community.
Activities    Rigor and Relevance    Best Practices, Brain-Based Strategies
Differentiation    21st Century Skills
Activity 1. Introduction
    Identify A
Locate A
Select A
Analyze C
Judge C    1.    In the first step the student must explain the dimension of the problem, a brief overview of his origin and his causes (video interpretation).
2.    To start the activity could make a general text reading, "Sleep my city" between the whole group or reading the text individually.
3.    Read aloud the questions to solve doubts and then do a tab of questions individually.
4.    Finish with a discussion with the whole group, expressed around the answers.

•    Identifying similarities and differences, Cooperative learning, Questions and advanced organizers
•    Social, collaborative, democratic, cognitive
    ☞    Learning and Innovation Skills (4C´s Critical Thinking, communication, collaboration, creativity).
•    Critical Thinking (Problem solving, Research, Analysis, Project Management, etc.)
•    Communication (Crafting Messages and Using Media Effectively)
•    Collaboration (Cooperation, Compromise, Consensus, Community-building, etc.)
•    Creativity (New Knowledge Creation, Design Solutions, Artful Storytelling, etc.)
☞    Core Subjects – 3Rs and 21st Century Themes
•    Cross-cultural Understanding (Across Diverse Ethnic, Knowledge and Organizational Cultures).
Activity 2. Dream my city
    Describe A
Explain C
Compare C
Contrast C
Design D    
−    Reflect on issues affecting the vision of what is and could be our city.
−    Imagine and describe the difference between the dream and what exists in the city or community. From these contrasts are intended to locate their vision of the city
−    Design a political agenda to express government proposals (from a utopian vision), and present to the group justifying his execution
•    Identifying similarities and differences. 
•    Social, collaborative, democratic and cognitive. 

☞    Life and Career Skills (Managing Change, Lifelong Learning and Career Redefinition).

☞    Learning and Innovation Skills (4C´s Critical Thinking, communication, collaboration, creativity).
•    Critical Thinking (Problem solving, Research, Analysis, Project Management, etc.)
•    Communication (Crafting Messages and Using Media Effectively)
•    Collaboration (Cooperation, Compromise, Consensus, Community-building, etc.)
•    Creativity (New Knowledge Creation, Design Solutions, Artful Storytelling, etc.)

☞    Core Subjects – 3Rs and 21st Century Themes
Activity 3. My needs, common needs?
    Choose A
Analyze C
Categorize C
    
−    Reflect individually about any situation that concerns them, they feel that they need or something would like them. 
−    Choose three needs or desires from all selected. (Index card)
−    Reflect and analyze about who belong to disadvantaged groups and classify writing.
•    Experiential and reflective     ☞    Learning and Innovation Skills (4C´s Critical Thinking, communication, collaboration, creativity).
•    Critical Thinking (Problem solving, Research, Analysis, Project Management, etc.)
•    Communication (Crafting Messages and Using Media Effectively)

☞    Core Subjects – 3Rs and 21st Century Themes
Activity 4. In the search for solutions
    Choose A
Adapt D
Compose D
Create D
Invent D    
−    Retrieve the three needs or desires chosen by the group in the previous activity.
−     Using the case method or life stories, students are divided into groups to write the continuation of different stories.
−    Write a continuation of a story by answering the question: "how could improve the characters of the story their situation?" 
−    Give a solution to the needs that arise.
•    Cooperative learning, generating hypothesis. 
•    Experiental, expressive, social, collaborative, democratic, constructivist.     ☞    Life and Career Skills (Managing Change, Lifelong Learning and Career Redefinition).
☞    Learning and Innovation Skills (4C´s Critical Thinking, communication, collaboration, creativity).
•    Critical Thinking (Problem solving, Research, Analysis, Project Management, etc.)
•    Communication (Crafting Messages and Using Media Effectively)
•    Collaboration (Cooperation, Compromise, Consensus, Community-building, etc.)
•    Creativity (New Knowledge Creation, Design Solutions, Artful Storytelling, etc.)

☞    Information, Media and Technology Skills (Effective Use of Electronic Information and Knowledge Tools)
☞    Core Subjects – 3Rs and 21st Century Themes. 
Activity 5. Reporting under headlines
    Match A
Analyze C
Adapt D    −    The students should to write press releases about the stories of the previous activity. 
−    Relating the news to citizen participation and analyze each case.       
☞    Learning and Innovation Skills
•    Critical Thinking
•    Communication
•    Collaboration
•    Creativity 

☞    Core Subjects – 3Rs and 21st Century Themes. 

Activity 6. Community-based approach
    Select A
Apply B
Differentiate C
Discriminate C
Justify C
Research C
Prioritize D
Plan D
Develop D
Design D
    −    In this phase, the students investigate and select a group or community that have detected the lack of citizen participation as the problem to solve.
−    Students will design strategies for community outreach and must develop a series of activities that promote the participation of all community members.
−    The students will design a series of activities or strategies to promote participation in various communities in his city or context
−    Students will work with the community to be distributed in groups divided by age to adapt the activities.
•    Social, collaborative, democratic, cognitive, development, constructivist and challenging. 
    
☞    Life and Career Skills (Managing Change, Lifelong Learning and Career Redefinition).
☞    Learning and Innovation Skills (4C´s Critical Thinking, communication, collaboration, creativity).

•    Critical Thinking (Problem solving, Research, Analysis, Project Management, etc.)

•    Communication (Crafting Messages and Using Media Effectively)

•    Collaboration (Cooperation, Compromise, Consensus, Community-building, etc.)

•    Creativity (New Knowledge Creation, Design Solutions, Artful Storytelling, etc.)

☞    Information, Media and Technology Skills (Effective Use of Electronic Information and Knowledge Tools)
☞    Core Subjects – 3Rs and 21st Century Themes
•    Cross-cultural Understanding (Across Diverse Ethnic, Knowledge and Organizational Cultures).


Activity 7. Real Community
    Apply B
Demonstrate B
Interview B
Operate B
Practice B
Solve B
Prove C
Adapt D
Develop D
Explore D
Plan D
    −    At this stage students visit the selected community.
−    For two or three days, students will develop strategies or activities for promote the participation of the community and / or citizenship
−    Students will analyze the reality of the community who visit and should to identify other issues to reflect on the causes of each of the lacks that have the community.
•    Student centered, experiental, holistic, social, collaborative, democratic, cognitive, development, constructivist and challenging.     ☞    Life and Career Skills (Managing Change, Lifelong Learning and Career Redefinition).
☞    Learning and Innovation Skills (4C´s Critical Thinking, communication, collaboration, creativity).
•    Critical Thinking (Problem solving, Research, Analysis, Project Management, etc.)
•    Communication (Crafting Messages and Using Media Effectively)
•    Collaboration (Cooperation, Compromise, Consensus, Community-building, etc.)
•    Creativity (New Knowledge Creation, Design Solutions, Artful Storytelling, etc.)
☞    Core Subjects – 3Rs and 21st Century Themes
•    Cross-cultural Understanding (Across Diverse Ethnic, Knowledge and Organizational Cultures).
Activity 8. Closure
    Measure B
Evaluate C
Conclude C-D
Recommend D    −    Each day we will have an evaluation meeting to work on the areas of opportunity and improve strategies of community work.
−    The intent is that each of the teams receive feedback of their work
−    It is important to evaluate and measure the goals set at the beginning of the project.
•    Cooperative learning, setting objectives and providing feedback, generating hypothesis and questions.     ☞    Life and Career Skills 

☞    Learning and Innovation Skills
•    Communication
•    Collaboration 

☞    Core Subjects – 3Rs and 21st Century Themes 

Weekly Plan - October 2015

 

Activities and Assignments:     Week 1    Week 2    Week 3
    M    T    W    F    M    T    W    F    M    T    W    F
Activity 1. Introduction
                                                
Activity 2. Dream my city
                                                
Activity 3. My needs, common needs?
                                                
Activity 4. In the search for solutions
                                                
Activity 5. Reporting under headlines
                                                
6.Community-based Approach                                    
7.Real Community                                    
8. Closure and Evaluation                                    

 

 

 


Unit Analysis
The problems we are going to possibly have during the development of PBL are:

☞    Lack of time
☞    Economic resources
☞    Safety of students during the visit to the community
☞    Lack of adaptation to the community by students
☞    School policies regarding outings and trips
References
−    Alvarado, R., (2013) Educación para el Desarrollo: un proceso para la transformación social, en AZ Revista de educación y cultura, 73, pp. 42-45
−    André, P. et al. (2006). Participation publique: principes internationaux pour une meilleure pratique, Publication spéciale, Série no. 4, Fargo (ND): International Association for impact Assesment.
−    Boyes-Watson, C. (2005). Community is not a place but a relationship. Public Organization Review: A Global Journal, 5, pp. 359–374. 
−    DellaValle, J. &Dotson, S. (n.d.). Core 21 A handbook for Teaching the Essential Core Elements For 21st Century Teacher
−    Kettner, P., Daley, J., & Nichols, A. (1985). Initiating charge in organizations and communities: A macro practice model. Monterrey, CA: Brooks/Cole