The Age of         Exploration

 Grade 5

PBL - The Age of Exploration 
Unit topic:  Social Studies - Exploration
Grade level: 5
Duration of unit: 10-11 weeks (1 trimester)                                                                                Designer: Beth Carroll  
PBL Focus:  
How did the Age of Exploration change the world and impact our lives today?
    What are/were the pros and cons of exploration?
    How were different peoples affected?
    How did life change after contact between Natives and Europeans?

Entry Activity:
“Explore Mars!” Activity

In this introductory activity the students will work together to plan a trip to Mars.  The idea is to give them an authentic view of what the explorers might have felt, the misconceptions that they had, as well as the challenges. Encourage students to be creative.  There is no right or wrong answer.  They will present their ideas at the end of class.

Standards: 

SS5.2.1 - Understands that specific individuals had a great impact on history
-        Explorers impact on knowledge of world
-        Explorers willingness to take huge risks
SS5.2.2 - Understands that specific ideas, decisions and events had an impact on history
-        Decision to set sail impacted Native Americans
-        Trade expanded
-        Europeans exhibited power over natives
-        Basic beliefs about the world changed (view of flat world, other peoples, sea animals, navigation devices, maps)
SS5.5.2 - Knows that culture can be expressed through a variety of ways
-        Native American view of Europeans
-        Explorers’ views of Native Americans
SS5.5.3 - Understands that social affiliation has many meanings
-        Nationalism of European countries (be first to reach Asia over the sea, bring riches to your country)

SS5.5.4 - Understands that one person’s interests may conflict with the interest of others and that rules can help to resolve these conflicts

SS5.11.1 - Knows how the characteristics of places are shaped by physical and human processes
-        Effect of Cortez and “sacking” of Aztec resources

SS5.11.3 - Understands voluntary and involuntary migration
-        Stories of an “Unknown Land”
-        The Greenlander’s Saga
-        European belief that the world outside of where they lived was very dangerous
-        Poor ships and no maps (desire to improve these)
-        Trade with Asia
-        Desire for gold, riches, and power after Columbus’ visit
-        Similarities and differences in characteristics of culture in different regions

SS5.16.1 - Understands that all societies have developed various economic systems in order to allocate their resources to produce and distribute goods and services and there are advantages and disadvantages of each type of system
-        How native economies developed differently that those of Europeans

SS5.5.7 - Knows various forms of religious, social, political and economic institutions had an impact throughout history
-        Conquistador view of “taming savages”
-        “Trading” and stealing riches from Aztecs
-        Native cultures impact of beliefs of explorers
SS5.6.1 - Knows various people and groups who make, apply, and enforce rules and laws for others and who manage disputes about rules and laws
-        Ferdinand and Isabella control Columbus and other Spanish explorers
SS5.19.3 - Understands the significance of beliefs held by both Native Americans and Europeans
-        Encounters between explorers and Native Americans
-        Pre-exploration beliefs about the world
-        Post-exploration beliefs about the world
SS5.19.4 - Understands the relationship between the Native Americans and European Explorers
-        Vikings negative encounters in Newfoundland
-        Positive pilgrim experience in Plymouth
-        Positive experiences between the Indians and the French in Canada
SS5.19.5 - Understands the discovery and conquest of the New World
-        Conquistadores and Aztecs
-        Ponce de Leon and Florida
-        Building New Spain
-        Slavery and slave trade
-        The French in North America and the fur trade
-        English settlement and effect on Native Americans
SS5.19.8 - Knows legends of pre-Columbus explorations and the technological, scientific, and geographic factors that led to the age of exploration
SS5.19.9 - Knows the features of the major European explorations that took place between the 15th  and 17th centuries:
-        Christopher Columbus,
-        Marco Polo
-        Prince Henry of Portugal
-        Amerigo Vespucci
-        Vasco Nunez de Balboa
-        Ferdinand Magellan
-        Hernan Cortez
-        Routes and motive of exploration
-        Problems on the seas
-        Expectations of what they would find
-        What explorers found in the New World
SS5.10.1 - Knows the basic elements of maps and globes   
-    Cartography as it relates to explorers
-    Mapping exploration routes
SS5.10.3 - Uses map grids to plot absolute location
-        Mapping and locating exploration routes
SS5.10.4 - Knows major physical and human features of places as they are represented on maps and globes


Student-Friendly Standards: 

SS5.2 Understands that people’s ideas and actions impacted others in history

SS5.5.2 Understands that Natives in North and South America had completely different civilizations and cultures than Europeans during the Age of Exploration

SS5.19.8 Knows that various factors influenced European exploration, including legends, technology, science, and the geology of the land and oceans.

SS5.19.9 - Knows about major European explorations that took place between the 1400s and the 1600s: 
-        Christopher Columbus,
-        Marco Polo
-        Prince Henry of Portugal
-        Amerigo Vespucci
-        Vasco Nunez de Balboa
-        Ferdinand Magellan
-        Hernan Cortez
-        Routes and motive of exploration
-        Problems on the seas
-        Expectations of what they would find
-        What explorers found in the New World
SS5.10.1 - Knows the basic elements of maps and globes   

SS5.10.3 - Can use map grids (lines of latitude and longitude)  to plot location on the Earth


Essential Questions: 

How did the Age of Exploration change the world and impact our lives today?
    What are/were the pros and cons of exploration?
    How were different peoples affected?
    How did life change after contact between Natives and Europeans?
    Student “I Can” Statements:

UNDERSTAND
●    I understand that individuals can and do impact history
●    I understand that different people from different cultures can and do have varying perspectives on the same event.  For example, the explorer/leader of an expedition, a sailor on board his ship, and a Native person whom they encountered.

KNOW
●    I know the basic elements of maps and globes
●    I know that different people groups have different cultures
●    I know the differences between Native cultures in South/North America and European cultures during the Age of Exploration
●    I know the various factors that influenced European exploration
●    I know the various reasons why exploration took place
●    I know about the major explorers/explorations that took place between the 1400s and the 1600s

DO
●    I can use a map grid (lines of latitude and longitude) to plot locations from anywhere on Earth
●    I can research specific explorers and determine their direct impact on our lives today
●    I can describe how a European country was involved in the Age of Exploration and the conflict between European countries at the time
●    I can identify and describe a Native culture in North or South America before the Europeans arrived and the impact of the encounter with the explorer
●    I can describe how our lives today were impacted by the Age of Exploration
●    I can present my findings to others 

 

Assessment Evidence

Pre-Assessment: 

A Google form will be used in order to quickly pre-assess and gather replies.

●    Describe what life was like for Native American and Indigenous Peoples before European explorers arrived. 
●    Why did Europeans decide to explore? Give some reasons.
●    How did European explorers change the countries they landed in?  How did they change history?
●    What do you wonder about European explorers?    Formative Assessments: 

Teacher will use a checklist (Appendix A) throughout the unit to formatively assess students’ progress on the project.

Other formative assessments are listed in the sequence of instruction and highlighted in orange.

    Summative Assessments:

There will be one summative assessment on Map Skills at the beginning of the unit, and one on the project at the end of the unit.

Teacher and students will use analytic rubrics before, during, and after the project/presentation.

See Appendices for rubrics & checklists.
•    Appendix A: Teacher Daily/Weekly Formative Checklist (p. 13)
•    Appendix B:  Student Checklist for final PBL Presentation (p. 16)
•    Appendix C:  Collaboration Rubrics (p. 18)
•    Appendix D:  Process Rubric (p. 21)
•    Appendix E:  Final Presentation (Product) Rubric (p. 22)
•    Appendix F:  Student Checklist – Presentation (p. 24)

Sequence of Instruction

Note:
Green highlight indicates application of Differentiation, RR Rigor/Relevance, Brain-Based Learning (BBL), and 21st Century Skills
Orange highlight indicates formative or summative assessment.

 

Bloom’s:  Analyze, Evaluate/Create
BBL:  Cooperative Learning, Social/Emotional Learning, 21st Century Skills: 4Cs.
Formative assessment (presentations): do the students understand the great challenges associated with exploring an unknown place?  

Activities and Assignments:
Lesson 1a) 
Parts of a Map    Students will learn the parts of a map.  In partnerships, they will read 2-3 pages of a textbook about the parts of a map.  They will take notes.  Each group will be assigned one definition and come up with a fun way for the class to remember what it is and what it is used for (ie song, rhyme, mnemonics, etc.). 

a) map title
b) map key
c) compass rose
d) cardinal directions

e) intermediate directions
f) locator
g) map scale
h) inset map
i) grid
j) lines of latitude
k) lines of longitude

A blank world map with longitude and latitude lines will be put up.  Each day, different students will be responsible for bringing in the longitude and latitude of a certain place (a place that is special to them or that they heard about on the news), giving the co-ordinates to the class.  The class will guess what place they are talking about after plotting the points.

Bloom’s:  Remember, Apply
BBL:  Relevance, Summarizing, Note-taking, Practice/Repetition, Cooperative/Social Learning

Resources for Lesson 1a):
●    Social Studies book, introduce the parts of a map  (p. 34-36). 
●    Printable world map with longitude and latitude http://www.artofanderson.com/latitude-and-longitude-world-map/ 
●    BrainPop Video about Longitude and Latitude. http://www.brainpop.com/socialstudies/geography/latitudeandlongitude/(Stop at 2:37).  As students watch the video have them write the definitions of the following concepts: Prime Meridian, Equator, Longitude, Latitude
Lesson 1b) 
Latitude & Longitude    Students will practice latitude & longitude skills by playing online games together, and doing a worksheet. (formative assessments)

BBL: Cooperative/Social Learning
Bloom’s:  Remember
Resources for Lesson 1b):
●    Online games - longitude & latitude: http://www.purposegames.com/game/longitude-and-latitude-quiz   http://www.abcya.com/latitude_and_longitude_practice.htm http://www.kidsgeo.com/geography-games/latitude-longitude-map-game.php 

Lesson 1c)  
Map Quiz
    (summative assessment)
Lesson 2  
Marco Polo    Students will be introduced to who Marco Polo was and why/when he explored, because many European explorers were inspired by Marco Polo’s stories.

In partnerships students will read Marco Polo’s bio, and watch a video about him.  They will find Venice on the online map.  They will take notes.  Whole class: read book, plot his journey on the class map, and together take the interactive map quiz (formative assessment - as the class does the quiz together as a group, kids vote on the answers before we choose one).  Will start an “Explorer mini-book,” and record important information.

Bloom’s:  Remember, Understand
BBL:  Summarizing, Note-taking, Practice/Repetition, Co-operative/Social Learning, 21st Century Skills: 4Cs

Resources for Lesson 2:

●    Biography (kid-friendly):  http://www.ducksters.com/biography/marco_polo.php
●    Interactive Map to use to find Venice, Italy  http://mapmaker.education.nationalgeographic.com/?ar_a=1&b=1&ls=000000000000
●    Online fun assessment (formative) of Marco Polo’s journey:  http://edsitement.neh.gov/sites/edsitement.neh.gov/files/M_Polo_Rte_Quiz_Revsd02.swf
●    Marco Polo’s biography (3 min video)  http://www.history.com/topics/marco-polo/videos#marco-polo
●    Song that explains the Marco Polo story.  http://www.history.com/topics/exploration/marco-polo/videos/marco-polo
●    Map that shows Marco Polo’s route to China. http://www.eduplace.com/kids/socsci/books/applications/imaps/maps/g2_u5/index.html
●    Book “You wouldn’t want to explore with Marco Polo” written by Jacqueline Morley

 

Project Day    Detailed discussion of project & rubrics.

Ideas can include:  
●    presentation (slideshow)
●    iMovie slideshow
●    http://issuu.com/ *note: Teacher will decide whether using issuu will be mandatory or not.  The advantage of making it mandatory is that all student projects can be put together into an online magazine at the end.
●    Google Docs
●    models, maps, and demonstrations (speeches), which can include acting + explanations
●    posters, letters, diagrams
●    timeline
●    fictional journal entries read by actors

Form/assign partnerships & explorers (one per group).  Partnerships begin discussing ideas about how to organize themselves (look closely at rubrics, especially Collaboration Rubric).  They will begin work next class.
Lesson 3  
Reasons for Exploration    Model/teach reasons for exploration + why European countries were interested in exploration.  Use Christopher Columbus as a model.  Model using a personal and class timeline.

Project Part 1 (Research):  Choose a specific European explorer who led an exploration and encountered a Native population. You will explain the factors that led to his exploration, including a detailed analysis of Europe at the time and why his own country was interested in exploration.  Start adding important dates to your personal and class timelines.

Formative assessment: One-minute essay at the end of class on reasons for exploration - share with partners & pass in to teacher on sticky notes.

Formative assessment:  Teacher begins daily project checklist as s/he circulates to note students’ progress on the project.

BBL: Co-operative/Social Learning, 21st Century Skills: 4Cs, Life & Career Skills
Bloom’s:  Remember, Understand, Apply
Differentiation: based on daily checklist and anecdotal evidence from circulating throughout the class, teacher creates mini-workshops for those who need more help and/or those that are going beyond and need more.  

Resource:
-Book: “You Wouldn’t want to sail with Christopher Columbus!” p8&9

Lesson 4  
Routes of Explorers    Teacher models how to research and map out an explorer’s route using Columbus as an example. 

Formative assessment: check maps

Project Part 2a) (Research): Students research their explorer’s route(s).  Draw & label them on a blank world map in different colors.

BBL: Co-operative/Social Learning, 21st Century Skills: 4Cs, Life & Career Skills
Bloom’s:  Remember, Understand, Apply
Differentiation: based on daily checklist and anecdotal evidence from circulating throughout the class, teacher creates mini-workshops for those who need more help and/or those that are going beyond and need more. 
Lesson 5
Life aboard ships/tools used    Teacher teaches about ships and tools of the time.  Students take notes about types of tools and dates they were invented (can infer if their explorer used them or not based on dates).  Teacher models briefly taking the perspective of someone on the ship, and writing a diary.  Also take the perspective of the explorer and briefly demonstrate how to write an “I Am poem.   

Project Part 2b) (Research/Perspective): Describe your explorer’s voyage(s).  
Include:
●    map(s)
●    tools he possibly used
●    life aboard the ship
●    a diary entry from the point of view of a sailor
●    legends, hopes, and fears of the explorers/sailors
●    write an “I Am” poem from the point of view of your explorer

BBL:  Rigor, Co-operative/Social Learning, 21st Century Skills: 4Cs, Life & Career Skills
Bloom’s:  Apply, Analyze, Evaluate/Create
Differentiation: based on daily checklist and anecdotal evidence from circulating throughout the class, teacher creates mini-workshops for those who need more help and/or those that are going beyond and need more.  

Lesson 6
Native populations before European contact    Teacher models with Taino/Christopher Columbus, also reads the book “Encounter.” 

Project Part 3a) (Research/Perspective/Compare & Contrast/Evaluate):  What Native population did your explorer encounter?  Describe what life was like before Europeans arrived AND/OR write a journal entry that details the everyday life of a Native person before European contact.

BBL: Rigor (apply learning to new situation), Identify Similarities and Differences, Co-operative/Social Learning, 21st Century Skills: 4Cs, Life & Career Skills
Bloom’s:  Apply, Analyze, Evaluate/Create
Differentiation: based on daily checklist and anecdotal evidence from circulating throughout the class, teacher creates mini-workshops for those who need more help and/or those that are going beyond and need more.  
Lesson 7a)
Aliens take over Mexico     (Whole class) Imagine if aliens invaded and took over Mexico with their language and way of life.  Discuss in groups, write a short journal together (as a class?) about what that experience would be like (what it looked and felt like).  

Project Part 3b) (Research/Perspective/Compare & Contrast/Evaluate):  Imagine what the encounter between the Natives and your explorer could have been like.  Write a journal entry from the points of view of the explorer and a Native person (work with your partner to divide the work).  

BBL:  Emotional/Social, Rigor/Relevance, Co-operative/Social Learning,21st Century Skills: 4Cs, Life & Career Skills
Bloom’s:  Evaluate/Create
Differentiation: based on daily checklist and anecdotal evidence from circulating throughout the class, teacher creates mini-workshops for those who need more help and/or those that are going beyond and need more.  

7b) Compare and contrast life for Natives before and after contact (model with Taino/Christopher Columbus)
    Project Part 3c) (Research/Perspective/Compare & Contrast/Evaluate):  Compare and contrast what life was like for the Natives before and after the Europeans arrived.  Do you think life would have been better or worse for them if the Europeans had never arrived?  Explain and justify your answer.

BBL: Rigor (apply learning to new situation), Identify Similarities and Differences, Co-operative/Social Learning, 21st Century Skills: 4Cs, Life & Career Skills
Bloom’s:  Apply, Analyze, Evaluate/Create
Differentiation: based on daily checklist and anecdotal evidence from circulating throughout the class, teacher creates mini-workshops for those who need more help and/or those that are going beyond and need more.  
Lesson 8
How did explorers change the world and impact our lives today?    Teacher models thinking aloud about what life might have been like if Columbus had just stayed home, touching on all important aspects of his legacy.  What might be different?  How might the Dominican Republic be different? How might Mexico be different?  Spain?  How might my own life be different?  Make a list of possible positives and negatives and have a class debate.  

Project Part 4 (Research/Evaluate/Theorize):  How did your explorer help change the world?  What influence did he have on the country in which he landed?  Debate the positives and negatives of his exploration. How did he (and other explorers) affect YOUR life today?  How might life today be different in your country if explorers never went exploring?  Create a journal, a play, drawings, and/or a video or presentation (ie perhaps a debate between the two of you) to share about life in this alternate universe.

BBL: Rigor (apply learning to new situation), Generating and Testing Hypotheses, Co-operative/Social Learning, 21st Century Skills: 4Cs, Life & Career Skills
Bloom’s:  Analyze, Evaluate/Create
Differentiation: based on daily checklist and anecdotal evidence from circulating throughout the class, teacher creates mini-workshops for those who need more help and/or those that are going beyond and need more.  
Lesson 9
Work on project Part 5 and the project as a whole.    Project Part 5 (Understand/Analyze/Theorize):  If your family decided to move to Asia or Africa, how would your journey be alike/different from an explorer’s journey?  How would your departure and arrival and life in the foreign land be the same or different?  Compare and contrast.

Project BONUS (E-Option):
Would you consider applying to be part of the Mars One Human Settlement on Mars, beginning in 2026?  You will be about 22 years old at that time.   http://www.mars-one.com/ Crews of four will depart every two years.  Look through the Mars One website, especially at the astronaut selection process.  Write a persuasive letter to Mars One about why you should be included.  Make sure you mention the qualifications they are looking for, as well as what life will be like for you there.  What will some of the challenges, obstacles, and dangers be?  How will you overcome them?  Then make a Venn Diagram comparing your voyage and life on Mars with a European explorer’s trip to and life in North/South America.  

Project as a Whole (putting it all together):

Can include:
●    presentation (slideshow)
●    iMovie slideshow
●    video you create for a specific part of the presentation
●    http://issuu.com/ 
●    Google Docs
●    models, maps, and demonstrations (speeches), which can include acting + explanations
●    posters, letters, diagrams
●    timeline
●    fictional journal entries read by actors

BBL: Social/Emotional, Rigor/Relevance, Generating and Testing Hypotheses, Co-operative/Social Learning, 21st Century Skills: 4Cs, ITC Literacy, Life & Career Skills
Bloom’s:  Remember, Understand, Apply, Analyze, Evaluate/Create
Differentiation: based on daily checklist and anecdotal evidence from circulating throughout the class, teacher creates mini-workshops for those who need more help and/or those that are going beyond and need more.  
Lesson 10
Presentations    Students take turns presenting their projects to an authentic audience that can include parents, other classes, the principal and/or director, other teachers, etc.  

While listening, the students in the audience take notes on each presentation in an ‘explorer booklet’ with little pictures for each explorer.

Notes can be used for a formative assessment and effort grade (listening skills).
Presentations are a summative assessment.

BBL:  Rigor, Summarizing, Note-taking, Practice/Repetition, Co-operative/Social Learning, 21st Century Skills: 4Cs, ITC Literacy, Life & Career Skills
Bloom’s:  Remember, Understand

Lesson 11
Post-presentations    In small groups, look at the notes taken on each presentation.  Describe/chart the commonalities between all the explorers.  Reconvene as a class and discuss/make a class chart.  

Each child decide whether or not he/she would make a good explorer and give reasons why or why not.  If yes, where would they like to go?  

This is a chance for formative assessment - which students ‘got it’ and which are struggling (and also which listened and took notes).

Teacher decides whether to make a class online booklet of all the presentations (can use a website like www.issuu.com).  Link can be sent home to parents.

BBL:  Relevance, Summarizing, Note-taking, Practice/Repetition, Co-operative/Social Learning, 21st Century Skills: 4Cs
Bloom’s:  Remember, Understand, Apply, Analyze, Evaluate/Create

Possible Pitfalls    ●    Time: the project may take longer than expected.
●    Organization: some kids may have trouble with the ‘open-endedness’ of the project and have trouble organizing their research and/or deciding on how best to present it all. Also some students may lag behind others.
●    Putting it altogether in issuu would have to be decided beforehand to make sure everyone does their work in the same format.

Appendix A
Teacher Daily/Weekly Formative Checklist
The Age of Exploration PBL
Group Progress

Names    Project Part 


Each part will likely last about one week (3 classes), depending on the needs of the class.    N
(Needs Improvement)

Note areas in which students are struggling and set up a small group workshop for next class.    A
(Approaching Expectations) 

Note possible workshop needs to help boost their work next class.    M
(Meeting Expectations)

Got it!    E
(Exceeding Expectations) 

Going above and beyond - note possible workshop ideas for students that need extra challenge)
    1. Students research reasons for exploration, including why their explorer’s country was interested in exploration.
              
    2.  Explorer voyage details:  maps, tools used, a diary entry from the point of view of a sailor, life aboard the ship, legends, hopes, and fears of the explorers/sailors.  “I Am” poem from the point of view of explorer.
                
    3.  Natives’ perspectives:  Description of life before European contact (and/or journal), 2 imaginary journals about the first encounter between Europeans and Natives - one from a Native’s perspective, and one from the explorer’s.  Compare and contrast Native life before and after European contact.  Paragraph written:  Do you think life would have been better or worse for them if the Europeans had never arrived?  Explain and justify your answer.
                
    4.  How did your explorer help change the world?  Debate the positives and negatives. How did he (and other explorers) affect YOUR life today?  

Options: journal, play, drawings, presentation, video to share about life in this alternate universe.
                
    5.  If your family decided to move to Asia or Africa, how would your journey be alike/different from an explorer’s journey?  How would your departure and arrival and life in the foreign land be the same or different?  Compare and contrast.                    
    6. Work on putting the whole project together. Include:

●    presentation (slideshow)
●    video
●    http://issuu.com/ or organize project in a pdf format
●    models, maps, and demonstrations (speeches), which can include acting + explanations
●    posters, letters, diagrams    
●    timeline
●    fictional journal entries read by actors                  
    7. E-Option:  Mars One application